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Process Plants Corporation (PPC) is pleased to provide Exploration & Production companies with a simple and extremely effective way to treat Frac water by removing dissolved and suspended solids to a level where the water may be acceptable for re-use.
Where the Marcellus shale is present, the Frac water has similar items found in AMD (acid mine drainage). Our process system has been successful in treating Acid Mine Discharge and removed the same metals that are present in Frac water. Now frac water is getting clean to reuse. At mines we stream discharged.
Our process injects oxygen into the frac water, precipitating metallic salts and sulfates. If your results exceeds 60,000 TDS -retreat with 2nd pass the insoluble contaminants may be removed from the pit water. Frac flow back pit water will be treated using the system to remove all heavy metals (iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al)) and dissolved chemicals (Sulfur).
THE MARCELLUS SHALE and PPC’s INVOLVEMENT, lab director said, “Your treatment is doing what you were expecting in the reduction of samples especially samples with as complex of a matrix as yours…”
Our process oxidizes FRAC Water very efficiently with no moving parts.
This facilitates the conversion of ferrous iron into precipitating ferric iron very quickly.
1.Localized high pH within the system causing elevated reaction kinetics.
2.Cavitations taking place causing formation of free radicals that rapidly oxidize ferro us to the ferric form.
3. Cavitation resulting in gas phase reactions.
Ferrous iron oxidation forms ferric iron Fe+2 + 1⁄4O2+ H+ Fe+3+ 1⁄2H2O
NATURAL GAS EXTRACTION FROM THE MARCELLUS SHALE and PPC's INVOLVEMENT
Marcellus Shale Deposit Frac Water Make-up
From 1 to 10 million gallons of fracture, “frac”, water, mixed with various additives, is required to completion fracture each horizontal deep well. Once used, this now contaminated water must be removed from the well, generally 10 to 40% is recovered, and is commonly referred to as “flowback” water. Typically, flowback water contains high dissolved solids with varying levels of various other constituents such as barium and strontium.
Metals and acid-producing minerals
Marcellus shales are known, in some regions, to contain acid-producing minerals such as pyrite and sulfides.
The Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources publishes a map that indicates which formations are likely to contain acid-forming minerals. The lower part of the Marcellus formation is on the map.
Due to the high dissolved solids content and presence of various other constituents,
disposal of flowback water is becoming very difficult and costly.
Obtaining the needed water to makeup frac water, with subsequent disposal of the flow-
back water, presents a significant problem for gas production firms. In many areas, the
amount of suitable water needed for formulation of frac water is just not available.
The best solution to this combined wastewater disposal and water supply problem is to
simply treat and recycle the flowback water, over and over again, as frac water.
In many areas of the state where the Marcellus shale is present, the same conditions of
acid mine drainage exist from past coal mining activities and the same metals are pre-
sent in large amounts and is a major water quality problem.